Betulin is a substance extracted from the bark of birch trees and is in the form of a white crystalline powder.Birch is a deciduous tree with trunks up to 25 meters high and 50 cm thick. There are white smooth, paper-like bark that can be peeled off in layers and can be used to write on thin strips of bark. The leaves of birch are single-leaf alternate, the leaves are serrated at the edges, the flowers are unisexual, the monoecious, the male inflorescences are soft and drooping, and the leaves on the spring trees bloom when they have not grown. The fruit of the birch tree is flat and small, called the samara, which is easily blown up by the wind and passed to a distant place.
Betulinol is also known as betulin or birch. Soluble in ethanol, ether, chloroform and benzene, slightly soluble in cold water, petroleum ether and other organic solvents. At present, the route to obtain betulin is mainly based on direct extraction, mainly using solvent reflux extraction and recrystallization purification.
As a biological agent, betulin and its derivatives have great potential in the treatment of HIV and cancer. They work by interfering with the post-stage of the virus's life cycle and are related to the entry and growth of the virus. Betulin can also reduce dietary-induced obesity, reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues, and increase insulin sensitivity. At the same time, betulin has mild anti-inflammatory properties at higher concentrations, and its anti-inflammatory properties are mainly attributed to inhibition of non-neural gene pathways. The entry into the human body of betulin can inhibit the maturation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids.
In addition, betulin has anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, inhibits protein dissolution in hair fibers, improves the shine of damaged hair, promotes hair growth and the like, and can be applied to food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
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