Flavonoids and terpenoid lactones have always been the focus of quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts.
Total flavonol glycosides:
Total flavonol glycosides is an internationally recognized quality control index for ginkgo biloba and its preparations. Ginkgo flavonoids have complex components, mainly in the form of flavonoid glycosides, it is difficult to directly determine the content. In the current domestic and foreign standards, the samples are usually acid hydrolyzed firstly, then the contents of quercetin, kaempferin, and isorhamnetin are determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), multiplied by the correction coefficient to indirectly reflect the total content of flavonols , the detection method cannot fully and accurately reflect product information, which is insufficient in identifying fakes. It is necessary to directly determine the original form of flavonoids. It has been reported that the 10 prototypes of flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba leaf extract were directly determined by UPLC-MS/MS, it was found that the total flavonoids content in different batches of GBE varied greatly, ranging from 89.29mg/kg to 114.18mg/kg, the different flavonoids were in the same batch content also varies greatly, the method can be used as a supplement to the quality control of flavonoids.
The terpene lactone compounds of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract mainly include Ginkgolide A (GA), Ginkgolide B (GB), Ginkgolide C (GC) and Ginkgolide (BB). The ultraviolet absorption of terpenoid lactones is relatively weak. The test solution is prepared by repeated extraction in domestic and foreign standards, and the content of GA, GB, GC and BB is determined by HPLC-ELSD/RID. The 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Chp2020) stipulates the total content limit of the four components. In addition to the total content specified in the foreign pharmacopoeia GBE standard, it also restricts the content range of BB, GA+GB+GC. It has been reported that the content of terpene lactones in GBE from 6 different manufacturers was detected by the HPLC-ELSD method. It was found that although the total content of the four components (5.86%~8.41%) of most manufacturers meets the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard, the content of BB (1.78) %~2.92%), the total content of GA+GB+GC (4.62%~6.39%) did not meet the requirements of the British and American Pharmacopoeia. Therefore, it is necessary for each GBE manufacturer to refer to the foreign pharmacopoeia to carry out stricter quality control on the product to ensure quality.
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