because of the variety difference and the cultivation season, the active ingredient of Echinacea may be very different, for example, the index ingredient chrysanthemum acid content to the highest, up to 2.0-2.68%, but narrow leaf and white flower only contain 0.02-0.49%. Another active ingredient, anelamine, also varies widely in different parts of the same plant, usually with the highest seed skin, followed by roots, stems, barrel flowers, leaves and tongue-shaped flowers.
In addition, the most important factor affecting the quality of echinacea is pests and diseases, which can also affect the content of active ingredients, such as root rot, mycoplasma (mycoplasma) will reduce the content of chrysanthemum acid by more than 50%. If it suffers from root rot and is not detected, it will not only affect the surrounding healthy plants, processing and extraction will also affect the stability and flavor of the extraction solution, so the material harvest must be strictly controlled.
Echinacea has a long history of use in Europe and the United States, Germany in the 1950s began extensive research on the chemical composition of its, many phytochemical components are the first time from the extract of purification, which is a very small number of experimentally proven can regulate immunity of plants, currently on the global market more than 800 products contain its ingredients.
The functional components of echinacea include phenolic acid, polysaccharides, acetamide, polyethylene, glycoprotein, etc., of which phenolic acid, polyglycin and alkylamine are the focus of the study, and the regulation of the immune system has a great correlation. Phenolic acids are mainly coffee acid derivatives, including caftaric acid, Cichoric acid, Chlor acid and Echinacoside and so on, they are similar types of caffeic derivatives.
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