Beta-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is the reaction product of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase. In recent years, as NMN has been found to improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and other functions, it has attracted great attention, the demand for its raw materials is also increasing.
The preparation of Beta-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) mainly includes chemical and enzymatic synthesis. Compared with chemical synthesis, enzyme-catalyzed synthesis has no organic solvent residues and no need to consider chiral issues, so it is considered an environmentally friendly and pollution-free synthesis method.
As early as 1957, Jack et al. used phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) and nicotinamide as raw materials to synthesize β-NMN under the enzymatic catalysis in red blood cell extracts, thus explaining the production path of β-NMN in the body. The synthesis route is shown in Figure 1: Nicotinamide and phosphoribose pyrophosphate (PRPP) are catalyzed by nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT or NAMPRT) to generate NMN and pyrophosphate (PPi). In addition, nicotinamide riboside (NR) is phosphorylated to NMN under the catalysis of nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK).
Chinese researchers have done a lot of research work on the enzymatic synthesis of Beta-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN). Fu Rongzhao and others synthesized NMN using a combination of three enzymes, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, xanthine oxidase and NAMPT, using pyrophosphate, nicotinamide, and inosinic acid as substrates. The conversion rate of the reaction can reach 80%-100%, but the by-product xanthine produced in the reaction can inhibit the NAMPT enzyme, which requires xanthine oxidase to degrade the by-product, and the reaction system is more complicated.
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