At present, a variety of compounds can be isolated from echinacea, including volatile oils, polyacetylenes, caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins, flavonoids, and oils. Among them, the content of polyphenols, volatile oils, and oils is relatively high. many. Let's take a look at the chemical composition of echinacea.
◆ Polysaccharides and glycoproteins
The highest content of polysaccharides isolated that is inulin, and it also contains xylose dextran, pectin-like polysaccharides, fructans, etc.
◆ Caffeic acid and its derivatives
The chemical composition of echinacea is rich in caffeic acid and is the main active ingredient. The caffeic acid, methyl caffeic acid, ethyl caffeic acid, chicoic acid, chlorogenic acid, echinacoside can be separated by solvent method and chromatography. , Coffee tartaric acid, syringic acid, etc. The main phenolic compounds are chicory acid, caffeotartaric acid, and echinacoside. The American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (A H P) uses the HPLC method developed by I N A (Institute for Nutraceutical Advancement) to determine the total phenol content, and to quantitatively study the phenolic components.
◆ Essential oils
Chemical composition of echinacea was identified by G CM S analysis, and 68 compounds were initially identified. The essential oil contains fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and esters. The main compounds are n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid 9,12-linoleic acid. Esters, ethyl 9,12-linoleate, methyl 14-methyl-pentadecanate, and the like. Alkenes include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other terpenoids and oxygenated compounds, of which 1,11-dodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8- (1-methylethyl ) -1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-tridecene, syringene, etc. The relative content is relatively high, and the aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives are mainly 1,2,3,5,6,8α-hexahydro-4, etc .; Alcohols are typical compounds such as atractylol, α- juniper alcohol, molitol, and 1-hexadecanol; in addition, they also contain many heterocyclic compounds and other substances with relatively low content.
◆ Other compounds
Echinacea also contains acetic acid, 1-methyl-3- (1-methylethyl) -benzene, 2,3-butanediol, 7,8-furanocoumarin and 6-methoxy-7- Hydroxy-coumarin. In addition, it also contains two alkaloids, such as colostristine and isocollaline, the steroidal compounds stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, and also contains 15 inorganic elements and 16 amino acids, 8 of which are essential amino acids for the human body.
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