Echinacea purpora is a perennial plant that is rich in caffeic acid derivatives, alkylamides, and various active substances such as polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Echinacea purpora and Echinacea purpurea extract powder have significant immunoregulatory and growth-promoting effects.
◆ Immunomodulatory effects
Reduce the body's oxidation levels of free radicals
Active oxygen free radicals, including hydroxyl free radicals, super oxygen free radicals and lipid free radicals, have extremely strong oxidizing ability, can interact with biological macromolecules such as nucleic acids and sugars in the body, destroy cell structure and function, and damage the health of the body. The active ingredients in echinacea and its extract can improve the body's antioxidant capacity. More research confirms that echinacea exerts its antioxidant function mainly through the following two ways:
(1) Echinacea directly removes free radicals from the body. The echinacea contained CADs are polyphenolic compounds, which can supply hydrogen to lipid compound free radicals, and at the same time, they transform themselves into stable phenolic oxygen radicals, which directly absorb the free radicals to achieve oxidation and delay the oxidation process.
(2) Echinacea purpurea extract powder prevents further oxidation by regulating the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Echinacea can regulate the antioxidant enzymes in animals such as (SOD), (CAT) and glutathione (GR), remove organic peroxides, reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduce or prevent lipid peroxidation The reaction takes place.
◆ Enhance immune function
(1) Improving the humoral immune function of animals by increasing the humoral antibody level and the B lymphocyte conversion rate of immune organs, thereby promoting the growth and development of immune organs.
(2) Acts directly on immune cells to enhance cellular immune function. Echinacea and its extracts increase the number and activity of lymphocytes in the body, induce an increase in interleukin-2, γ-interferon content, and significantly increase the level of cellular immunity.
(3) Echinacea powder can regulate Toll-like receptors (TLR) signal transduction, activate downstream key signal molecule MAPK pathway, and make extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), JNK Phosphorylation then activates NF-κB, up-regulates the expression of costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), thereby upregulating macrophage function.
(4) The active ingredients polysaccharides and glycoproteins of Echinacea purpurea extract powder can promote the production and secretion of macrophages γ-interferon, β-interferon, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6, enhance respiratory burst activity, and further enhance phagocytosis Ability to improve immune function.
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